Posts Tagged ‘hot air’
Building fault tolerance with tiled floors and walls if he be durable Dampproofing, nothing is more important that prevent water entry-rain above ground and below ground pressure hydrostatic. Rainier climate, for more control over of rain. Gravity, wind, pressure, power, momentum capillary action can cause any rain to penetrate into the surface of the building. All traditionally has been blocked by the following design techniques: providing ample roof overhangs can help keep the rain off the building.
Avoid straight holes in the walls to prevent rain entering by momentum.
Providing kerfs or rain can make the edges of the covers with the tension value.
Provides gravity-flow flashings to direct rainwater back toward the exterior of the building.
Allow the pressure equalized or click guided air space behind the surface of space exterior wall to prevent water entering the air pressure.
Installing roof gutter when moisture condenses all captured or within an Assembly of the wall, roof or floor is mold or structural damage and mildew, principal air quality problems.
It is important to know the traffic of the water vapor in the air that leaks through cracks in the shell of the building. The amount of moisture that can be carried through the air flows through cracks, voids the escape may be moisture intrusion problems, and these cracks should be sealed. As the hot air rises, it causes high pressure low pressure at the top of a building at the bottom, and the result is what is called stack effect. These large pressure differential in points, attic, basement, air leak seal and use it especially retarders air flow. A good example of stack effect better illustrating these principles is the elevator in a building typical of his penis. On your next trip, you can feel the pressure lift air flow.
Under the most severe rain exposure, providing equalized pressure surface (side) behind the outer chhipoi, in combination with the a-plane drainage that may prevent these situations-behind of water entry. For areas of precipitation is low, adequate access (with a long track record) is to provide a high Interior opaque exterior wall or concrete masonry counters, which allows rain be stored for drying of wall-mount later. The least system is access to sealed him with boys no-rain, such as mass-storage systems (EIFS) to terminate the outer insulation. This system has the most bmaibshim use only, unless water management system (drainage plane) is included.
Hospg asphalt alone (or paper asphalt) traditionally where the drainage plane, but durable insulation sheathings, such as water or rigid foil faced structural coating, can also serve the purpose. Window, door and roof/wall detail must be carefully to ensure that the drainage plane continuity. That plane out of the drainage impacts on the wall Assembly, indoor air quality tar paper or hard Board are usually only a problem for the chemically sensitive people.
Alan is performing building Advisor Trauger assessments of residential and commercial properties and property status. An experienced and knowledgeable problem solver, understanding the processes and issues related to build buildings and their systems. Until an expert, trainer and educator.
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The goal of energy efficiency in commercial buildings is particularly complicated, first and second high potential. It is complicated, as more intertwined than at any other building project, the energy technology of the building and that for its functions to one another. The construction and held him in processes influence each other. And for that very reason there is for rational use special opportunities, the interaction between buildings and the events inside it to use to save energy. This applies to the entire path of a product from its production through the storage and distribution to sales.
Saving energy in production
Most of the energy consumed in the production process heating, followed by electric motors and air compressors. In the production architects can not intervene directly – but such as installing more efficient heat pumps with heat recovery advocate who effectively conduct the heat of the machines back into production or for heating use. Uwe Hemmer from the Stuttgart engineers egs-plan but sees a different focus: “With new production facilities with energy-optimized building envelope is to cool the plant rooms, the big issue. Using absorption chillers and combined heat, cooling and power it can generate heat with cold. “Even the organic waste of a production, such as the wood chips in carpentry may as fuel for stoves and boilers are used and produce energy. Often worth the conversion of plants, such as electric motors and air compressors. This modification has consequences for the building: The requirements for building envelope, partitions and Raumzonierungen change and in turn have an impact on production. For example, needs an efficient paint a highly insulated drying chamber, so that the recovery work. Another example is the CHP, the heat or cold and also provides power. Hemminger: “This form of energy is worth in medium and large industrial enterprises, almost always.”
On a gas-fired cogeneration plant, the architects Hegger, Hegger-Luhnen, Schleiff put together with the TGA-planners of egs plan for a production facility for SMA Solar Technology AG in Kassel, Germany. The power plant supplies heat for building heating and electricity for production. The steel-reinforced concrete building has a facade and a highly insulating Dreischeibenisolierverglasung. Additional electricity is generated by large areas of solar cells. A total of 1.2 MWp be generated there, the calculated primary energy consumption is only 500 kWh / m² a.
Saving energy in storage
The product moves further – from production to the distribution center. The challenge here is primarily the uniform temperature of large warehouses and reduce temperature losses, about 68 percent of the energy consumed in conventional indoor heating. Often the building envelope is insulated enough and loading the Anliefertore are open for long. At the gate, energy can with compressed air locks and fast closing mechanisms can be saved.
The type of heating is a problem: conventional gas heaters do not meet the Renewable Energy Law. Many new warehouses rely on a floor or an activation of the concrete floor, coupled with renewable energy sources such as geothermal. The large flat roofs of their buildings use a lot of logistics in addition to photovoltaic modules – but not for internal consumption, says Dietrich Schmidt, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Technology: photovoltaic panels on the Indus ¬ try, in commerce and trade are primarily an investment business. “Uwe Hemminger of egs-added plan: “The photovoltaic modules are used often to meet the required percentage of EnEV in renewable energy.”
An exceptional warehouse planned the architect Helmut Poppe and Andreas Prehal for One World Trade AG in the Austrian village Niklas. The so-called eco ² building is a heat energy requirement of 10.4 kWh / m² a in passive house level and adjacent to 2 200 m² 600 m² storage area includes offices, shops and meeting areas. The construction of the building are modular prefabricated components made of thermoplastic wood and specially developed wood sandwich panels. A ventilation system with heat recovery temperature of the storage room. The heat energy it provides a boiler fueled by wood chips, which can generate a turbine and electricity. Daylight in the warehouse reduces the energy consumption for lighting. The primary energy demand of the building is only 64 kWh / m² a.
Saving energy in the food market
Finally, the product ends up in supermarkets. Here suggest a number of prestigious buildings Ökowelle. Most German supermarkets are not converted and consume at a size of an average of 1500 square meters, about 900-1000 kWh / m² a, twice as much as energy-efficient markets. The cooling of fresh and frozen food requires the most power, then get light and ventilation. Weighs less energy to heat the showrooms.
Savings especially in commercial refrigeration made easy: Fixed cabinet with glass doors and with a recovery of waste heat for heating the showroom or to generate savings of hot water, electricity and heating energy each around 40 percent. For new cooling technology for furniture also ventilation, LED lighting is energy-saving outside the cold layer. The cooling technology itself is changing: instead of conventional fluorocarbons is increasingly CO2 as a refrigerant.
A Renommierbau Rewe is the branch in Berlin-Rudow, designed by Koch Architects from Dusseldorf. Not only efficient refrigerators with glass doors and CO2 refrigerants applied to build a DGNB Certificate in gold and a Green Building Award in 2009. The synergies of building and system technology are innovative facade integrated PV cells give current and shade while the showrooms. A heat pump with heat recovery uses heat and heats the showrooms, geothermal energy is used as an additional source of energy.
The architecture itself is a structure made of wood and Leimholzrahmenbinder sandwich panels with glazing in the façade and roof, the light guide in the showrooms. The additional lighting is daylight-dependent and controlled by sensors. Photovoltaic modules in the facade and the roof while generating very little power, but serve the marketing. The primary energy consumption, including commercial refrigeration is only 500 kWh / m² a. The planners of the branch show that supermarkets are in energy savings up to 50 percent.
Saving energy in other trading
After the food trade, the remaining business is the second largest energy consumer in the industrial sector, ahead of the office buildings. Especially malls get excited strong feelings. Her biggest consumption item is the lighting, followed by cooling. Dietrich Schmidt of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft explains the connection: “The lamps in the stores sometimes have a very high heat radiation. This means high power consumption and cooling loads enormous. An energy efficient lighting system can require the operators of individual stores but not often. ”
There are alternatives: energy-saving or fluorescent bulbs, reflectors, dimmers, timers or daylight-dependent lighting control systems. For large areas are, for T5 fluorescent lamps and halogen lamps. Adapter systems help to replace traditional tubes by electronic preceding three-band tube, without replacing the entire lamp. LEDs also illuminate more and more retail space. A maximum daily light output is not always appropriate: a low-contrast combination of daylight and artificial light is produced only when the artificial light gets to the brightness of sunlight, which means plenty of natural light in a lot of artificial light….