Archive for May, 2011
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Light and fleeting as a wing beat, and sometimes only for a summer: pavilions are the butterflies of architecture. The lyrical reference to the colorful Hymenoptera in this case has even justified, but he goes back to the Latin word papilio: butterfly. Conceptually, the pavilion, alluding to his origins as a temporary, tent-like structure that was previously built for festivals and revels in the open. Today, the pavilion between temporary sensation and architecturally-experimental innovation dazzling topos, in which the spirit and creative imagination are as close as anywhere else and even if pavilions now there are none in the wind flapping tents more, their architectural form remains the pursuit of floating transparency and openness characterized.
Even in the literal sense frivolous character of the pavilion remained to this day, even if determination, shapes and materials have since been converted and extended and it is by his peers long ago is not only short-lived, improvised seasonal merchandise for the purpose of entertainment.
His skills as a serious building project became the pavilion in the Age of Enlightenment, when the conquest of distant continents and cultures, new architectural forms were discovered and imported to Europe. Instead of the traditional canopy structures created in the gardens and parks now oriental pleasure palace and pagodas in the arcades or harem-style: solid buildings for which the design is neither a fixed set of rules was still a formal canon.
Try the exotic types, shapes and colors was not limited to gazebos or temporary entertainment venues. In the form of nascent botanical and zoological gardens and the spa and beach resorts quickly took place something like a functional enslavement of decorative pavilion architecture.
Architecture with a mission
A new role has grown to the type pavilion in the second half of the 19th Century. At the World Exhibition in Paris in 1867, the countries presented for the first time in so-called national pavilions, which should give visitors an impression of the economic power of innovation, the national characteristics and local craftsmanship. The pavilion architecture itself was in this context is not only a medium for a political objective self-expression, but a statement about the state of the architecture of each era. Mies was reminded in this context, the Barcelona Pavilion by van der Rohe for the 1929 World Fair. The legendary building was a key work of modern and is responsible not only Mies’ buildings such as the following Villa Tugendhat and the nearly forty years later formed the New National Gallery in Berlin, but a whole era architecture. Even the simplest of suburban bungalow one can see that the struggle for the modern ideal of smooth, uncluttered space that seeks to connect through openings and large windows with their environment – even if it is sufficient instead of onyx and travertine only to plasterboard and aerated concrete.
A very different gesture tried the pavilion of the young Federal Republic, which was first presented at the World Exposition 1958 in Brussels. The ensemble, designed by Egon Eiermann and Sep Ruf, consisted of two-and three-story light buildings, which were grouped loosely around a green space and recreating the ideal of a modern urban landscape. Instead of the usual national power Dairy Expo was the new Germany in the minds of its recent history with the pavilion on noble restraint. But the self-image of a refined, transparent and open country at that time was above all an ideal.
The global political agenda of the 21st Century now dictates to other rights. Today it’s at the world exhibitions on sustainability, globalization, urbanization, climate change and finite resources. The energy consumption for temporary structures such as national pavilions is now justified only if their design takes into account a sustainable decommissioning. Thus, the award-winning German pavilion at Expo 2010 in Shanghai, after his removal reused virtually no residue. From the facade material creates a sun protection for the German School in Shanghai, part of the device, the local Goethe Institute receives, and the constructive elements, such as steel beams, plates and wood parts were sold to a Chinese contractor. Temporary and sustained the same time – seems in the dialectic of the pavilion repealed even this contradiction.
Approximate the content of the pavilion – it can art and culture, but also goods, political messages or technical innovations offer a roof – corresponds to its free form and relatively low requirements for durability and reliability. Of course, swell the modern Expo Pavilion countries often on the size of an ocean liner, and require as much design power, money and work like a “real” house.
Experimental Solid State Physics
But there is probably no building project, the architectural vision is so courageously and freely with new design methods and materials, combines such as pavilions. Thus set, the Austrian firm Coop Himmelb (l) au for the Bavarian State Opera, an external venue, the outer shape was generated from music. As a starting point of the design of the recently completed “Pavilion Mini Opera Space” on the Munich Marstallplatz served sequences from Jimi Hendrix’s “Purple Haze” and Mozart’s “Don Giovanni” was developed from the frequency analysis, a 3-D model: Build for notes . Whether this design approach also prevails for the design of solid buildings, remains to be seen.
On the iconographic power unleashing the Serpentine pavilions set in London’s Kensington Gardens. Since 2000, charges the same gallery is an internationally famous architects to build for the duration of a summer gazebo. With the highly experimental, architectural test arrangements for which there could include Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas and the Office Sanaa be won by the building type pavilion back here to its roots: an illusionistic housing for temporary enchantment of a place that serves no apparent purpose . Architecture in its purest form, while most transient.
He is one of the most powerful architect in the world – Patrik Schumacher. “Patrick who?” May be asking a lot. Schumacher has been working since the early days of the architectural firm of Zaha Hadid and forward it together with her. He is the “brain” of the office. All theoretical writings come from him. He is in charge of the projects. It is the “face” of the office, the Pritzker Prize-winner, the artist.
As before, the whole world pulls at her designs, from London to Abu Dhabi, Rome China. Everywhere you pick companies, cities and states a piece of “vanguard” home. And they are right. The buildings of the agency Zaha Hadid is a feast for the eye. They make deserts to central locations, they broke into little attractions, its individual buildings overshadow the earth.
The dream of a new International Style
Patrik Schumacher is now too far. Prior to the prestigious London School of Architecture, he presented his book “The autopoiesis of Architecture”.
Autopoiesis is a term from systems theory and means something like “self-creation.” The book is his “Magnum Opus” as he himself says. He understands it as a manifesto that the buildings of the agency Zaha Hadid is the theoretical underpinning. He analyzes the development and importance of architectural styles since ancient times and determines which styles are important or unimportant, which are by-styles, which only modes. And very quickly he speaks openly of what drives him actually. His goal is the leadership, the introduction of his invented “parametricism” as a global new style. Patrik Schuhmacher used in his lecture, only a German word with which he is describing the intended effect of the work of the office and his theories: the Big Bang.
Clash of styles
But what is parametricism? That is, Schumacher, the new global style that follows the modern era. He must defeat the “War of the Styles all other styles. Main enemy is the minimalism. Basis of the style is the consistent use of digital design techniques. They can occur on the computer all the possible forms, some of which are borrowed from nature. This results in a free-form architecture, which can lead to soft, flowing forms. Any change in the parametric model leads to changes in other parts of the design. Everything depends on everything. By working exclusively in a digital world, architects, planners and engineers worldwide and simultaneously work on the drafts. The new style claims applicability to all levels of design, from interior design to the large-scale urban planning.
There is no question that Zaha Hadid’s office can realize fascinating buildings. Even a place in architectural history seems certain. For the “avant-garde free-form architecture, the buildings are without precedent. The ski jump in Bergisel has a dynamism that is unparalleled. The Phaeno center in Wolfsburg is like a spaceship lifts off again. The stop in Innsbruck is an electrifying expansive design. The bridge in Zaragoza and the Museum in Rome are pioneering milestones. And if true, what is planned in the coming years, we should still get some time to wonder.
Adulterated architectural history
But here arises out of nowhere, a new style? No. Patrik Schumacher intoxicated within himself and strip out of generations of architects. The word “organic architecture” refers to him not take place. By Alvar Aalto, Gaudi, Eero Saarinen and Santiago Calatrava is not mentioned. No mention is the founder of organic architecture, Louis Sullivan. The slogan “form follows function” is from him. And even in Germany there is an almost continuous tradition of organic architecture. Erich Mendelsohn was the Einstein Tower, not the technical possibilities, but the same will. And proclaim the development of a new style, without the Philharmonie in Berlin, or the school in Marlborough by Hans Scharoun to mention, is quixotic. Only Frei Otto, architect of the Olympic Stadium in Munich finds grace in the world of homemade Patrik Schumacher.
The green mega trend is ignored
The real global mega-trend of the architecture also takes no notice of sustainability, resource conservation, ecological construction. These are the topics for which new solutions are found and new technologies are tested. And this has nothing to do with the first form. Of course, out here to develop their own design. At the moment, but that is not in sight, and will likely not be necessary. The Zaha Hadidsche parametricism is therefore still a design phenomenon, without notice. And it just some German architects of the next generation of the relationship between form and function have understood better. Green architecture is its foundation. Digital design techniques are used quite naturally. In the combination can also be created spectacular free-form shapes, and perhaps even a new style.
Two sentences from a blog of the British Architects’ Journal “bring the whole dilemma of the architect to the point. Herein reported a former employee of Zaha Hadid about his work: “As we had discussed for half a year so it should look like the building envelope. What was then a humiliating moment, as the lead architect raised his hand and raised the question of how to actually get into the building. “